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Academic Profile

I began my career as an EFL teacher in Japan and quickly became interested in how language learners acquire their second (or more) languages. During my Masters study, I began researching how they learn vocabulary in particular. This interest extended through my PhD research at Nottingham, and upon completion of my degree I was pleased to join the two prominent vocabulary specialists already on staff (Professor Ronald Carter and Professor Michael McCarthy) as a colleague. Although I continue to research second language vocabulary acquisition, my interests have broadened to all aspects of lexical study, including vocabulary testing, phraseology and formulaic sequences, corpus-based research, and the interface between vocabulary knowledge and the ability to read and listen in English.

Videos, Conference PowerPoint Presentations, Podcasts, and Other Media

Here are the PowerPoint slides for the presentations from the 2017 TESOL colloquium "Teaching and Assessing Vocabulary: What the Research Shows". It was held in Seattle, Washington on March 22, 2017.

Here's an interview I recently gave to the teacher's journal New Routes. It contains very accessible information on some key pedagogically-related vocabulary issues.

Here is my PPT presentation for IATEFL Chile 2014. It is a basic overview of issues in vocabulary testing, and an introduction to a number of different vocabulary tests and test formats.

Here is the presentation on 'Vocabulary Size and Depth' that I gave at the Vocab@Vic lexical conference in Wellington, New Zealand in December 2013.

Here is the Powerpoint presentation I gave at the Classroom-oriented Research: Reconciling Theory and Practice conference at Konin, Poland on October 16, 2013. It looks at a number of vocabulary issues related to vocabulary theory, research, and pedagogy.

Here is my 2013 AAAL conference presentation, presented with Diane Schmitt and Jez Uden. It concerns graded readers and is entitled: "Can Learners Make the Jump from the Highest Graded Readers to Ungraded Novels?: Four Case Studies". There is also a handout for the presentation.

I contributed to an Academic Vocabulary colloquium at the TESOL 2013 conference. The other presenters were Diane Schmitt and Keith Folse. My topic was "Formulaic Language in Academic Study". All three PowerPoint presentations are available below, in the order they were given at the conference:

Here is a podcast I recorded in 2012 with my colleague Ana Pellicer-Sanchez discussing Yes-No (Checklist) vocabulary tests and the strengths and weaknesses of the various methods of scoring these. In particular, we discuss a new method of scoring which uses reaction times to judge the probablity of whether examinees actually know the words they 'check' or not. It accompanies our 2012 Language Testing article on this topic (see below in the 'Publications' section), and is the Language Testing Bytes Podcast Number 11.

Language Testing Byes Podcast Number 11

Please install the Adobe Flash Player to view this movie.

On October 17, 2012, our CRAL research institute (Centre for Research in Applied Linguistics) celebrated its 10-year anniversary. We held a special event where CRAL members gave short presentations about our past research, and thoughts about where the field is going in the future. Here is my 15-minute talk and Powerpoint slides.

At the 2011 IATEFL conference in Brighton, UK, Diane and I were part of a vocabulary seminar, along with Paul Nation and Averil Coxhead via video link. If you look closely, you can just see the tops of our heads in the front of the room on the right side! The seminar focused on vocabulary size and frequency:

"With estimates of the size of the English language running to between 1 and 2 million word forms, where do teachers begin identifying the vocabulary that is worth focussing on with their students? Many textbook writers and publishers have focussed on the 2000 or 3000 words that, according to corpora, are the most frequent. Research, however, suggests that fluent speech can require up to 7,000 words - and between 8,000 and 9,000 word forms are needed to understand authentic written texts. How do we bridge this gap to ensure that our learners become effective users of English? In this event our panel will discuss research into the vocabulary needs of learners and suggest ways in which teachers can increase their students' vocabulary in a structured and meaningful way."


Below is a list of most of my publications. Where possible, I have included a link to a .pdf file of the final version of the paper, especially for the journal articles. For the chapters in books, I have sometimes included a link to a WORD document. These WORD documents are often the ones I submitted to the publishers. While containing the essential content of the paper, they will not include any edits the publishers made after submission, the publishers' final formatting, or the final page numbers. Therefore, if you wish to cite these papers, you should try to obtain the final version from the publishers.


Schmitt, D., Schmitt, N., and Mann, D. (2011). Focus on Vocabulary: Bridging Vocabulary. Longman Press.

Schmitt, N. (2010). Researching Vocabulary: A Vocabulary Research Manual. Palgrave Press.

Schmitt, N and Marsden, R. (2006). Why is English Like That? Historical Answers to Hard ELT Questions. University of Michigan Press.

Schmitt, D. and Schmitt, N. (2005). Focus on Vocabulary: Mastering the Academic Word List. Longman Press.

Schmitt, D. and Schmitt, N. (2011 2nd edition). Focus on Vocabulary: Mastering the Academic Word List. Pearson Longman Press.

Schmitt, N. (ed.). (2004). Formulaic Sequences: Acquisition, Processing, and Use. John Benjamins Press.

Schmitt, N. (ed.). (2002). An Introduction to Applied Linguistics. Hodder Arnold Press.

Schmitt, N. (ed.). (2010 2nd edition). An Introduction to Applied Linguistics. Routledge Press.

Schmitt, N. (2000). Vocabulary in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press.

Schmitt, N. and McCarthy, M. (eds.). (1997). Vocabulary: Description, Acquisition, and Pedagogy. Cambridge University Press.

Journal Articles

  • In press

    Vilkaite, L. & Schmitt, N. (in press). Reading collocations in an L2: Do collocation processing benefits extend to non-adjacent collocations? Applied Linguistics.

  • pdf (PDF, 450 Kb)

    Macs, M. & Schmitt, N. (2017). Not just 'Small Potatoes': Knowledge of the idiomatic meanings of collocations. Language Teaching Research, 21(3), 321-340.

  • pdf (PDF, 925 Kb)

    Garnier, M. & Schmitt, M. (2016). Picking Up polysemous phrasal verbs: How many do learners know and what facilitates this knowledge? SYSTEM, 59, 29-44.

  • pdf (PDF, 148 Kb)

    Macis, M. & Schmitt, N. (2017). The figurative and polysemous nature of collocations and their place in ELT. ELTJ, 71(1), 50-59.

  • pdf (1.5 Mb) (PDF, 1.5 Mb)

    Kremmel, B. & Schmitt, N. (2016). Interpreting vocabulary test scores: What do various item formats tell us about learners’ Ability to Employ Words? Language Assessment Quarterly, 13(4), 377-392.

  • pdf (463 Kb) (PDF, 462 Kb)

    Gyllstad, H., Vilkaite, L. & Schmitt, N. (2015). Assessing vocabulary size through multiple-choice formats: Issues with guessing and sampling rates. ITL International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 166, 276–303.

  • First View (PDF, 278 Kb)

    Schmitt, N., Cobb, T., Horst, M., & Schmitt, D. (2015). How much vocabulary is needed to use English? Replication of Van Zeeland & Schmitt (2012), Nation, (2006), and Cobb (2007). Language Teaching. DOI: 10.1017/S0261444815000075.

  • pdf (418 Kb) (PDF, 418 Kb)

    Garnier, M. & Schmitt, N. (2015). The PHaVE List: A pedagogical list of phrasal verbs and their most frequent meaning senses. Language Teaching Research, 19, 6, 645–666.

  • The PHaVE List (386 Kb) (PDF, 386 Kb)
  • The PHaVE List User's Manual (PDF, 373 Kb)
  • The PHaVe List - Alphabetical Index (PDF, 156 Kb)
  • The PHaVE List - Frequency Index (PDF, 179 Kb)
  • pdf (439 Kb) (PDF, 438 Kb)

    González Fernández, B. & Schmitt, N. (2015). How much collocation knowledge do L2 learners have?: The effects of frequency and amount of exposure. ITL International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 166, 94-126.

  • pdf (431 Kb) (PDF, 430 Kb)

    Schmitt, N. (2014). Size and depth of vocabulary knowledge: What the research shows. Language Learning, 64, 4, 913–951.

  • pdf (389 Kb) (PDF, 389 Kb)

    Schmitt, N. and Schmitt, D. (2014). A reassessment of frequency and vocabulary size in L2 vocabulary teaching. Language Teaching, 47, 4, 484 - 503.

  • Uden, J., Schmitt, D., & Schmitt, N. (2014). Can learners make the jump from the highest graded readers to ungraded novels?: Four case studies. Reading in a Foreign Language, 26, 1, 1-28.
  • pdf (391 KB) (PDF, 390 Kb)

    van Zeeland, H. & Schmitt, N. (2013). Incidental vocabulary acquisition through L2 listening: a dimensions approach. SYSTEM, 41, 609-624.

  • pdf (310 Kb) (PDF, 309 Kb)

    van Zeeland, H and Schmitt, N. (2013). Lexical coverage in L1 and L2 listening comprehension: The same or different from reading comprehension? Applied Linguistics, 34, 457-79.

  • pdf (955 Kb) (PDF, 955 Kb)

    Sonbul, S. and Schmitt, N. (2013). Explicit and implicit lexical knowledge: Acquisition of collocations under different
    input conditions. Language Learning, 63, 1: 121–159.

  • pdf (96kb) (PDF, 96 Kb)

    Conklin, K. & Schmitt, N. (2012). The processing of formulaic language. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 32, 45–61.

  • pdf (676 Kb) (PDF, 676 Kb)

    Pellicer-Sánchez, A. and Schmitt, N. (2012). Scoring Yes-No vocabulary tests: Reaction time vs. nonword approaches. Language Testing 29, 4: 489-509.

  • pdf (356 Kb) (PDF, 356 Kb)

    Martinez, R. and Schmitt, N. (2012). A Phrasal Expressions List. Applied Linguistics 33, 3: 299-320.

  • PHRASE List (MS Word, 783 Kb)
  • PHRASE List - User's Guide (MS Word, 30 Kb)
  • pdf (347 Kb) (PDF, 347 Kb)

    Alali, F. and Schmitt, N. (2012). Teaching formulaic sequences: The same or different from teaching single words? TESOL Journal 3, 2: 153-180.

  • pdf (3.7 Mb) (PDF, 3.7 Mb)

    Saigh, K. and Schmitt, N. (2012). Difficulties with vocabulary form: The case of Arabic ESL learners. System 40: 24-36.

  • pdf (662 Kb) (PDF, 662 Kb)

    Siyanova-Chanturia, A., Conklin, K., and Schmitt, N. (2011). Adding more fuel to the fire: An eye-tracking study of idiom processing by native and nonnative speakers. Second Language Research 27, 2: 1-22.

  • pdf (346 Kb) (PDF, 346 Kb)

    Schmitt, N., Ng, J.W.C., and Garras, J. (2011). The Word Associates Format: Validation evidence. Language Testing 28, 1: 105-126.

  • pdf (419 Kb) (PDF, 419 Kb)

    Schmitt, N., Jiang, X., and Grabe, W. (2011). The percentage of words known in a text and reading comprehension. Modern Language Journal 95, 1: 26-43.

  • pdf (7.6 Mb) (PDF, 7.6 Mb)

    Khalifa, H. and Schmitt, N. (2010). A mixed-method approach towards investigating lexical progression in Main Suite Reading test papers. Research Notes 41: 19-25.

  • pdf (183 Kb) (PDF, 183 Kb)

    Durrant, P. and Schmitt, N. (2010). Adult learners’ retention of collocations from exposure. Second Language Research 26, 2: 163-188.

  • pdf (96 Kb) (PDF, 96 Kb)

    Sonbul, S. and Schmitt, N. (2010). Direct teaching of vocabulary after reading: Is it worth the effort? English Language Teaching Journal 64, 3: 253-260.

  • Martinez, R. and Schmitt, N. (2010). Invited commentary: Vocabulary. Language Learning and Technology 14: 26-29.
  • Pellicer Sánchez, A.M. and Schmitt, N. (2010). Incidental vocabulary acquisition from an authentic novel: Do Things Fall Apart? Reading in a Foreign Language 22: 31-55.
  • pdf (86 Kb) (PDF, 86 Kb)

    Al-Homoud, F. and Schmitt, N. (2009). Extensive reading in a challenging environment: A comparison of extensive and intensive reading approaches in Saudi Arabia. Language Teaching Research 13: 383-401.

  • pdf (463 Kb) (PDF, 463 Kb)

    Li, J. and Schmitt, N. (2009). The acquisition of lexical phrases in academic writing: A longitudinal case study. Journal of Second Language Writing 18: 85-102.

  • pdf (569 Kb) (PDF, 569 Kb)

    Ishii, T. and Schmitt, N. (2009). Developing an integrated diagnostic test of vocabulary size and depth. RELC Journal 40, 1: 5-22.

  • pdf (461 Kb) (PDF, 461 Kb)

    Durrant, P. and Schmitt, N. (2009). To what extent do native and nonnative writers make use of collocations? International Review of Applied Linguistics 47: 157-177.

  • pdf (187 Kb) (PDF, 187 Kb)

    Schmitt, N. (2008). Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning. Language Teaching Research 12, 3: 329-363.

  • pdf (851 Kb) (PDF, 851 Kb)

    Tseng, W-T. and Schmitt, N. (2008). Towards a self-regulating model of vocabulary learning: A structural equation modeling approach. Language Learning 58, 2: 357-400.

  • pdf (111 Kb) (PDF, 111 Kb)

    Conklin, K. and Schmitt, N. (2008). Formulaic sequences: Are they processed more quickly than nonformulaic language by native and nonnative speakers? Applied Linguistics 29, 1: 72-89.

  • pdf (254 Kb) (PDF, 254 Kb)

    Siyanova, A. and Schmitt, N. (2008). L2 learner production and processing of collocation: A multi-study perspective. Canadian Modern Language Review 64, 3: 429-458.

  • pdf (230 Kb) (PDF, 230 Kb)

    Siyanova, A. and Schmitt, N. (2007). Native and nonnative use of multi-word vs. one-word verbs. International Review of Applied Linguistics 45: 109-139.

  • pdf (142 Kb) (PDF, 142 Kb)

    Tseng, W-T., Dörnyei, Z., and Schmitt, N. (2006). A new approach to assessing strategic learning: The case of self-regulation in vocabulary acquisition. Applied Linguistics 27: 78-102.

  • pdf (8.2 Mb) (PDF, 8.2 Mb)

    Phongphio, T. and Schmitt, N. (2006). Learning English multi-word verbs in Thailand. Thai TESOL Bulletin 19: 122-136.

  • pdf (18.8 Mb) (PDF, 18.8 Mb)

    Hemchua, S. & Schmitt, N. (2006). An analysis of lexical errors in the English compositions of Thai learners. Prospect 21, 3: 3-25.

  • Pigada, M. and Schmitt, N. (2006). Vocabulary acquisition from extensive reading: A case study. Reading in a Foreign Language 18, 1: 1-28.
  • Word document (94 Kb) (MS Word, 94 Kb)

    Schmitt, N. (2005-2006). Formulaic language: Fixed and varied. ELIA: Estudios de Lingüística Inglesa Aplicada 6: 13-39.

  • pdf (209 Kb) (PDF, 209 Kb)

    Zimmerman, C. and Schmitt, N. (2005). Lexical questions to guide the teaching and learning of words. CATESOL Journal 17, 1: 1-7.

  • pdf (93 Kb) (PDF, 93 Kb)

    Adolphs, S. and Schmitt, N. (2003). Lexical coverage of spoken discourse. Applied Linguistics 24, 4: 425-438.

  • pdf (206 Kb) (PDF, 206 Kb)

    Schmitt, N. and Zimmerman, C. (2002). Derivative word forms: What do learners know? TESOL Quarterly 36, 2: 145-171.

  • pdf (156 Kb) (PDF, 156 Kb)

    Schmitt, N., Schmitt, D. and Clapham, C. (2001). Developing and exploring the behaviour of two new versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test. Language Testing 18, 1: 55-88.

  • pdf (1.5 Mb) (PDF, 1.5 Mb)

    Schmitt, N. (2000). Key concepts in ELT: Lexical chunks. English Language Teaching Journal 54, 4: 400-401.

  • pdf (7.7 Mb) (PDF, 7.7 Mb)

    Schmitt, N. and Carter, R. (2000). The lexical advantages of narrow reading for second language learners. TESOL Journal 9, 1: 4-9.

  • pdf (4.5 Mb) (PDF, 4.5 Mb)

    Schmitt, N. and Carter, N. (2000). Lexical phrases in language learning. The Language Teacher 24, 8: 6-10.

  • pdf (4.5 Mb) (PDF, 4.5 Mb)

    Schmitt, N. and Dunham, B. (1999). Exploring native and nonnative intuitions of word frequency. Second Language Research 15, 2: 389-411.

  • pdf (136 Kb) (PDF, 136 Kb)

    Schmitt, N. (1999). The relationship between TOEFL vocabulary items and meaning, association, collocation, and word class knowledge. Language Testing 16, 2: 189-216.

  • pdf (679 Kb) (PDF, 679 Kb)

    Schmitt, N. (1998). Quantifying word association responses: What is nativelike? System 26: 389-401.

  • pdf (8.4 Mb) (PDF, 8.4 Mb)

    Schmitt, N. (1998). Measuring collocational knowledge: Key issues and an experimental assessment procedure. I.T.L. Review of Applied Linguistics 119-120: 27-47.

  • pdf (219 Kb)) (PDF, 219 Kb)

    Schmitt, N. (1998). Tracking the incremental acquisition of second language vocabulary: A longitudinal study. Language Learning 48, 2: 281-317.

  • pdf (169 Kb) (PDF, 169 Kb)

    Schmitt, N. and Meara, P. (1997). Researching vocabulary through a word knowledge framework: Word associations and verbal suffixes. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 19, 1: 17-36.

  • pdf (184 Kb) (PDF, 184 Kb)

    Schmitt, N. (1997). Don't read your papers please. English Language Teaching Journal 51, 1: 54-56.

  • pdf (3.5 Mb) (PDF, 3.5 Mb)

    Schmitt, N. (1995). A fresh approach to vocabulary using a word knowledge framework. RELC Journal 26, 1: 86-94.

  • pdf (835 Kb) (PDF, 835 Kb)

    Schmitt, N. and Schmitt, D. (1995). Vocabulary notebooks: Theoretical underpinnings and practical suggestions. English Language Teaching Journal, 49, 2: 133-143.

  • Word document (63 Kb) (MS Word, 63 Kb)

    Schmitt, N. (1994). Vocabulary testing: Questions for test development with six examples of tests of vocabulary size and depth. Thai TESOL Bulletin 6, 2: 9-16.

  • pdf (6.1 Mb) (PDF, 6.1 Mb)

    Schmitt, N. (1993). Comparing native and nonnative teachers' evaluations of error seriousness. JALT Journal 15, 2: 181-191.

Chapters in Books

  • Word document (MS Word, 149 Kb)

    Kremmel, B. & Schmitt, N. (in press). Vocabulary Levels Test. In the TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching. Wiley-Blackwell.

  • Invited Chapter.

    Macis, M., Garnier, M., Vilkaite, L., & Schmitt, N. Expertise in L2 Vocabulary. Expertise in L2 Vocabulary.

  • Invited Chapter

    González Fernández, B. & Schmitt, N. Vocabulary acquisition. In Loewen, S. & Sato, M. (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Instructed SLA. pp. 280-298. New York: Routledge.

  • Martinez, R. and Schmitt, N. (2015). Vocabulary. In Biber, D. and Reppen, R. (Eds.), Cambridge Handbook of English Corpus Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • pdf (1,105 Kb) (PDF, 1.1 Mb)

    Verspoor, M. and Schmitt, N. (2013). Language and the Lexicon in SLA. In Robinson, P. (ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of SLA. New York: Taylor & Francis/Routledge.

  • pdf (74 Kb) (PDF, 73 Kb)

    Schmitt, N. (2012). Formulaic language and collocation. In Chapelle, C.A. (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Wiley-Blackwell.

  • Word document (92 Kb) (MS Word, 92 Kb)

    Barcroft, J., Sunderman, G., and Schmitt, N. (2011). Lexis. In The Routledge Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Routledge.

  • pdf (420 Kb) (PDF, 420 Kb)

    Schmitt, N. and Redwood, S. (2011). Learner knowledge of phrasal verbs: A corpus-informed study. In Meunier F., De Cock S., Gilquin G. and Paquot M. (eds.), A Taste for Corpora. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  • Word document (89 Kb) (MS Word, 89 Kb)

    Schmitt, N. (2010). Key issues in teaching and learning vocabulary. In Chacón-Beltrán, R., Abello-Contesse, C., and Torreblanca-López, M. (eds.), Insights into Non-native Vocabulary Teaching and Learning. Multilingual Matters.

  • pdf (161 Kb) (PDF, 161 Kb)

    Li, J. and Schmitt, N. (2010). The development of collocation use in academic texts by advanced L2 learners: A multiple case-study approach. In Wood, D. (ed.), Perspectives on Formulaic Language: Acquisition and Communication. London: Continuum Press.

  • pdf (116 Kb) (PDF, 116 Kb)

    Jones, M. and Schmitt, N. (2010). Developing materials for discipline-specific vocabulary and phrases in academic seminars. In Harwood, N. (ed.), English Language Teaching Materials. Cambridge University Press.

  • pdf (15Mb) (PDF, 15.5 Mb)

    Kuiper, K., Columbus, G., and Schmitt, N. (2009). The acquisition of phrasal vocabulary. In Foster-Cohen, S. (ed.), Language Acquisition. Palgrave Macmillan.

  • pdf (143 Kb) (PDF, 143 Kb)

    Schmitt, N. (2007). Current trends in vocabulary learning and teaching. Cummins, J. and Davison, C. (eds.), The International Handbook of English Language Teaching, Vol. 2. Springer.

  • Word document (65 Kb) (MS Word, 65 Kb)

    Adolphs, S. and Schmitt, N. (2004). Vocabulary coverage according to spoken discourse context. In Bogaards, P. and Laufer, B. (eds.), Vocabulary in a Second Language. John Benjamins Press.

  • Word document (111 Kb) (MS Word, 111 Kb)

    Schmitt, N. and Carter, R. (2004). Formulaic sequences in action: An introduction. In Schmitt, N. (ed.), Formulaic Sequences: Acquisition, Processing, and Use. John Benjamins Press.

  • Word document (168 Kb) (MS Word, 168 Kb)

    Schmitt, N. Dörnyei, Z., Adolphs, S., and Durow, V. Knowledge and acquisition of formulaic sequences: A longitudinal study. In Schmitt, N. (ed.), Formulaic Sequences: Acquisition, Processing, and Use. John Benjamins Press.

  • Word document (611 Kb) (MS Word, 611 Kb)

    Underwood, G., Schmitt, N. and Galpin, A. (2004). The eyes have it: An eye-movement study into the processing of formulaic sequences. In Schmitt, N. (ed.), Formulaic Sequences: Acquisition, Processing, and Use. John Benjamins Press.

  • Schmitt, N. and Underwood, G. (2004). Exploring the processing of formulaic sequences through a self-paced reading task. In Schmitt, N. (ed.), Formulaic Sequences: Acquisition, Processing, and Use. John Benjamins Press.
  • Word document (160 Kb) (MS Word, 160 Kb)

    Schmitt, N., Grandage, S., and Adolphs, S. (2004). Are corpus-derived recurrent clusters psycholinguistically valid? In Schmitt, N. (ed.), Formulaic Sequences: Acquisition, Processing, and Use. John Benjamins Press.

  • Word document (83 Kb) (MS Word, 83 Kb)

    Schmitt, N. and Celce-Murcia, M. (2002). An overview of applied linguistics. In Schmitt, N. (ed.), An Introduction to Applied Linguistics. Arnold Press.

  • Schmitt, N. (2002). Using corpora to teach and assess vocabulary. Tan, M. (ed.), Corpus Studies in Language Education. IELE Press.
  • Schmitt, N. (2001). Using a word knowledge framework to analyze vocabulary tests and activities. In Fernández, F. (ed.), Los Estudios Ingleses. Studies in English Language and Literature, Vol. 3.
  • Schmitt, N. (2000). Issues in the emerging area of vocabulary learning strategies. In Arabski, J. (ed.), Studies in Foreign Language Acquisition and Teaching.
  • Carter, R.A. and Schmitt, N. (1999). Dictionaries for language learners. In Spolsky, B. (ed.), Concise Encyclopedia of Educational Linguistics. Pergamon.
  • Word document (154 Kb) (MS Word, 154 Kb)

    Schmitt, N. (1997). Vocabulary learning strategies. In Schmitt, N. and McCarthy, M. (eds.), Vocabulary: Description, Acquisition, and Pedagogy. Cambridge University Press.

  • Schmitt, N. (1996). An examination of the behaviour of four vocabulary tests. Allan, D. (ed.), Entry Points. IATEFL.
  • Schmitt, N. (1994). Collocation bingo, More than meaning", and Word building word family practice. In Nation, P. (ed.), New Ways in Teaching Vocabulary. TESOL.

Other Output

Teaching Interests


I would like to have more time to write my books, and so hope to go to part-time teaching in the next few years. This means I will no longer be accepting PhD students as the main supervisor. However, I can highly recommend any of my former PhD students as excellent supervisors. They teach at various universities around the world, and I suggest you contact them directly.

PhD Photo Gallery

Here is picture from 2007 of a road trip to a conference. My former PhD students include Anna Siyanova (2nd from left), Phil Durrant (3rd from left), and Jie Li (6th from left). Anna is now at Victoria University in Wellington, and Phil is at the University of Exeter.

Here is picture of our reception after Anna Siyanova's (4th form left) successful PhD viva. Other former PhD students include Ana Pellicer-Sanchez (2nd from left). The picture includes Marjolijn Verspoor (5th form left) from the University of Groningen in The Netherlands, who acted as external examiner. It also includes two of my colleagues who co-supervised Anna: Kathy Conklin (3rd from right) and Walter van Heuven (2nd from right), who both specialize in psycholinguistic approaches to language study.

This picture was taken in 2010 at one of the vocabulary group discussion sessions. It includes my PhD students from left to right: Kholood Saigh, Ana Pellicer-Sanchez, and Hilde van Zeeland. I am very pleased that Ana is now my colleague at Nottingham. At the right is Pawel Szudarski, one of Ron Carter's students who also has an interest in vocabulary and sits in on the sessions.

Here is a picture of our 2009 Christmas party. Pictured are Anna Siyanova (far left), Ana Pellicer-Sanchez (3rd from left), and Ron Martinez (now at San Francisco State University). Also pictured is Phoebe Lin (2nd from left), one of Svenja Adolphs' students who attended our vocabulary group meetings.

Here is my PhD Vocabulary Research Group in October 2012. My PhD students include Hilde van Zeeland (1st left) [Netherlands], Marijana Macis (4th from left) [Chile] and Mélodie Garnier (5th from left) [France]. Kholood Saigh [Saudi Arabia] is absent from the picture. My former PhD student and now colleague Ana Pellicer Sanchez continues to attend, and is now bringing her first PhD student, Niloofar Rahimi (3rd from left).

Christmas Party 2012

Here's Marijana, Hilde, Melodie, and Niloofar kitted up in my hockey jerseys for our 2013 annual University Challenge hockey game between the University of Nottingham and Nottingham Trent University.

Here is Hilde van Zeeland receiving the Hermann Research Scholarship award in Spring 2013 for outstanding PhD research. She also won the prestigious Christopher Brumfit Award for best PhD thesis in Applied Linguistics in the world in 2014. The referees commented that:

"The overall quality and significance of this research thesis is excellent, indicating that both the thesis itself and the author will make an important contribution to our field in years to come."

"This is an impressive piece of highly original research, designed and executed with great care and presented with exemplary clarity."

Here is the Vocabulary Group in October 2013. It includes threee new faces: Benjamin Kremmel (Austrian, 2nd row, far left) and Laura Vilkaite (Lithuanian, 2nd row, 2nd from left). The picture also includes Michael Rodgers (Canadian, seated far right), our newest staff member at Nottingham ,who also specializes in vocabulary-based issues.

Benjamin received the Caroline Clapham award for the best MA research in language testing published in 2013. Here he is receiving the award at the LTRC conference in Amstedam.

Here is the Vocabulary Group in October 2014. Members include (front row left to right) Duyen Le Thi (Vietnamese), Beatriz González Fernández (Spain), Melodie Garnier (France), and (back row left to right) Laura Vilkaite (Lithuanian), Michael Rodgers (Canadian), Benjamin Kremmel (Austrian), Marijana Macis (Bosnian), myself, and Ana Pellicer-Sanchez (Spain). Duyen is Michael's PhD student.

Here Benjamin picks up an award at LTRC for the second year running. This time it is the Lado Award for the best conference presentation by a PhD student. He received the award at LTRC in Toronto in March 2015.

Here we are at the 2015 University Challenge hockey game. In the front row left is Sam Barclay, who is Ana's newest student. Then Ana, Bea, Laura, and Benjamin. In the back row left are Hana Almutairi and Duyen Le Thi, Mike's new students, with Marijana on the right.

Here we are on another road trip to the 2015 BAAL Vocabulary SIG in Swansea. We were happy to meet up again with Pawel, who came in from Poland for the conference.

At the BAAL Vocabulary SIG, Bea and Benjamin won the prize for the best poster presentation.

Here is the Vocabulary Group in January 2016. Members include (front row left to right) Laura Vilkaite (Lithuanian), Beatriz González Fernández (Spain), Hana Almutairi (Saudi Arabia), Duyen Le Thi (Vietnamese), and (back row left to right) Sam Barclay (UK), Benjamin Kremmel (Austrian), Marijana Macis (Bosnian), Norbert Schmitt (USA), and Ana Pellicer-Sanchez (Spain). Hana and Duyen are Michael's PhD students, and Sam is Ana's. Melodie Garnier (France) and Mike Rodgers (Canadian) were absent, and so are pasted in.

Time for the 2016 University Challenge hockey game. Laura and I are in the front row, along with Marion Durbahn Quinteros, Ana's new student starting next year. In the back is Sam and Bea. On the back left is Haruna, Mike Rodger's partner. On the back right is Joe Jackson, a colleague from the department.

Here is the crew at the September 2016 Vocab@Tokyo conference.

We're having a traditional Japanese dinner outside after the conference with some friends. Diane is with us on the left.

Here is the 2016 University of Nottingham graduation. I had three PhD students graduating at the same time, a record! They are: Laura (2nd from left), Marijana (4th from left), and Melodie (5th from left). Both Ana and I got our PhD degrees from Nottingham, so we are all in our Nottingham robes. So I am very pleased with this picture of four of my former PhD students and myself in the Nottingham colors and cool hats.

One of the great pleasures of teaching at the University of Nottingham is having Prof. Zoltan Dornyei as a colleague. He is world-class applied linguist, and this picture shows he also can also get into the Christmas spirit!

Here is the panel for the "Teaching and Assessing Vocabulary: What the Research Shows" colloquium at TESOL 2017 in Seattle. From left to right: Norbert Schmitt, Averil Coxhead, Dee Gardner, Sam Barclay, Diane Schmitt, and Keith Folse. The PowerPoint slides for the presentations are at the top of this web page.

Here is a group of scholars interested in vocabulary enjoying a drink after the AAAL conference. Right to left: Geoff Pinchbeck, Benjamin, myself, Ana, Mike, Sam, Elke Peters, Batia Laufer, Stuart Webb, Bea, Marijana, and Brock.

Here we are at the 2017 BAAL Vocabulary SIG in Reading, England. As well as Sam, myself, Bea, and Ana, we are sitting with our friend Paul Pauwels from KU Leuven in Belgium.

Even better, Bea scooped up the prize for Best PhD Presentation at the conference.


I offer "Introduction to English Language Teaching" to 3rd year and international students. It aims to provide students with the background necessary to begin to plan ELT courses and develop teaching materials. It would be a useful module for any student considering ELT as a career, or if they wished to pursue part-time work during international travels.

I also teach on the 2nd year class "Second Language Learning" which shows how learners learn second languages, and which is an ideal foundation for the 3rd year "Introduction to ELT" class.

In addition, I contribute lectures to the 1st year foundation modules.


I teach Second Language Acquisition in the autumn semester and Vocabulary: Teaching and Learning in the spring semester. The modules are typically taken by students on the MA in Applied Linguistics, MA in Applied Linguistics and English Language Teaching, and MA in English Studies courses.

Personal Profile

I do much more than just research about vocabulary and teach Applied Linguistics. For a glimpse into some of my other interests, click on PERSONAL INTERESTS tab at the top of this page.